Lisbon, 23­-29 April 2017

This Spring School included 2 visits to Mining & Recycling sites, 1 ½ days of courses on Project and Risk Management, 1 day of lectures on life cycle of materials, mining & exploration, substitution of critical & toxic raw materials, recycling & circular economy, criticality & sustainability assessment, a half-day of project work, and a visit of materials science lab, which is working on substitution.

The main objective was to convey a basic understanding of the value chain of raw materials focusing on metals exploration & mining, substitution and recycling, but covering in principle exploration, mining, processing, materials selection & development (including substitution of critical and toxic raw materials), manufacturing, use and end of life options (including recycling).